1. Eisenberg MS, Bergner L, Hallstrom A: Cardiac resuscitation in the community. Importance of rapid provision and implications for program planning. JAMA 241:1905, 1979.
2. Murphy DJ, Murray AM, Robinson BE, et al: Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly. Ann Intern Med 111:199, 1989.
3. Awoke S, Mouton CP, Parrott M: Outcomes of skilled cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a long-term-care facility: Futile therapy? J Am Geriatr Soc 40:593, 1992.
4. Bonnin MJ, Pepe PE, Kimball KT, et al: Distinct criteria for termination of resuscitation in the out-of-hospital setting. JAMA 270:1457, 1993.
5. Kellerman AL, Hackman BB, Somes G: Predicting the outcome of unsuccessful prehospital advanced cardiac life support. JAMA 270:1433, 1993.
6. Schneiderman LJ, Jecker NS, Jonsen AR: Medical futility: Its meaning and ethical implications. Ann Intern Med 112:949, 1990.
7. Lantos JD, Singer PA, Walker RM, et al: The illusion of futility in clinical practice. Am J Med 87:81, 1989.
8. Brody BA, Halevy A: Is futility a futile concept? J Med Philos 20:123, 1995.
9. Marco CA, Bessman ES, Schoenfeld CN, et al: Ethical issues of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current practice among emergency physicians. Acad Emerg Med 4:898, 1997.
10. AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: Current Opinions of the CEJA-AMA, Chicago, American Medical Assoc., 1989, pp 12-13.
11. Brock DW, Wartman SA: When competent patients make irrational choices. N Engl J Med 322:1595, 1990.
12. ACEP: Policy statement: Nonbeneficial ("futile") emergency medical interventions. Irving, TX, American College of Emergency Physicians, 1998.
13. Hastings Center: Guidelines on the Termination of Life-Sustaining Treatment and the Care of the Dying. Briarcliff Manor, NY, The Hastings Center, 1987, p 19.
14. AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: Guidelines for the appropriate use of do-not-resuscitate orders. JAMA 265:1868, 1991.
15. Blackhall LJ: Must we always use CPR? N Engl J Med 317:1281, 1987.
16. Tomlinson T, Brody H: Ethics and communication in do-not-resuscitate orders. N Engl J Med 318:43, 1988.
17. Hackler JC, Hiller FC: Family consent to orders not to resuscitate: reconsidering hospital policy. JAMA 264:1281, 1990.
18. Jecker NS, Schneiderman LJ: Futility and rationing. Am J Med 92:189, 1992.
19. Paris JJ, Reardon FE: Physician refusal of requests for futile or ineffective interventions. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2:127, 1992.
20. Davidson KW, Hackler C, Caradine DR, et al: Physicians' attitudes on advance directives. JAMA 266:402, 1991.
21. Iserson KV: Law versus life: The ethical imperative to practice and teach using the newly dead emergency department patient. Ann Emerg Med 25:91, 1995.
22. Goldblatt AD: Don't ask, don't tell: Practicing minimally invasive resuscitative techniques on the newly dead. Ann Emerg Med 25:86, 1995.
23. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration: Protection of human subjects; informed consent and waiver of informed consent requirements in certain emergency research; final rules. Federal Register FR 96-24968, 9/26/96.
24. Schmidt TA, Tolle SW: Emergency physicians' responses to families following patient death. Ann Emerg Med 19:125, 1990.
25. Marco CA: Coping with unexpected death. J Coll Aesculapium Spring: 29, 1993.
26. Olsen JC, Buenese ML, Falso W: Death in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 31:758, 1998.
Was this article helpful?
Deal With Your Pain, Lead A Wonderful Life An Live Like A 'Normal' Person. Before I really start telling you anything about me or finding out anything about you, I want you to know that I sympathize with you. Not only is it one of the most painful experiences to have backpain. Not only is it the number one excuse for employees not coming into work. But perhaps just as significantly, it is something that I suffered from for years.