Chapter References

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2. Murphy DJ, Murray AM, Robinson BE, et al: Outcomes of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the elderly. Ann Intern Med 111:199, 1989.

3. Awoke S, Mouton CP, Parrott M: Outcomes of skilled cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a long-term-care facility: Futile therapy? J Am Geriatr Soc 40:593, 1992.

4. Bonnin MJ, Pepe PE, Kimball KT, et al: Distinct criteria for termination of resuscitation in the out-of-hospital setting. JAMA 270:1457, 1993.

5. Kellerman AL, Hackman BB, Somes G: Predicting the outcome of unsuccessful prehospital advanced cardiac life support. JAMA 270:1433, 1993.

6. Schneiderman LJ, Jecker NS, Jonsen AR: Medical futility: Its meaning and ethical implications. Ann Intern Med 112:949, 1990.

7. Lantos JD, Singer PA, Walker RM, et al: The illusion of futility in clinical practice. Am J Med 87:81, 1989.

8. Brody BA, Halevy A: Is futility a futile concept? J Med Philos 20:123, 1995.

9. Marco CA, Bessman ES, Schoenfeld CN, et al: Ethical issues of cardiopulmonary resuscitation: Current practice among emergency physicians. Acad Emerg Med 4:898, 1997.

10. AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: Current Opinions of the CEJA-AMA, Chicago, American Medical Assoc., 1989, pp 12-13.

11. Brock DW, Wartman SA: When competent patients make irrational choices. N Engl J Med 322:1595, 1990.

12. ACEP: Policy statement: Nonbeneficial ("futile") emergency medical interventions. Irving, TX, American College of Emergency Physicians, 1998.

13. Hastings Center: Guidelines on the Termination of Life-Sustaining Treatment and the Care of the Dying. Briarcliff Manor, NY, The Hastings Center, 1987, p 19.

14. AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs: Guidelines for the appropriate use of do-not-resuscitate orders. JAMA 265:1868, 1991.

15. Blackhall LJ: Must we always use CPR? N Engl J Med 317:1281, 1987.

16. Tomlinson T, Brody H: Ethics and communication in do-not-resuscitate orders. N Engl J Med 318:43, 1988.

17. Hackler JC, Hiller FC: Family consent to orders not to resuscitate: reconsidering hospital policy. JAMA 264:1281, 1990.

18. Jecker NS, Schneiderman LJ: Futility and rationing. Am J Med 92:189, 1992.

19. Paris JJ, Reardon FE: Physician refusal of requests for futile or ineffective interventions. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 2:127, 1992.

20. Davidson KW, Hackler C, Caradine DR, et al: Physicians' attitudes on advance directives. JAMA 266:402, 1991.

21. Iserson KV: Law versus life: The ethical imperative to practice and teach using the newly dead emergency department patient. Ann Emerg Med 25:91, 1995.

22. Goldblatt AD: Don't ask, don't tell: Practicing minimally invasive resuscitative techniques on the newly dead. Ann Emerg Med 25:86, 1995.

23. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration: Protection of human subjects; informed consent and waiver of informed consent requirements in certain emergency research; final rules. Federal Register FR 96-24968, 9/26/96.

24. Schmidt TA, Tolle SW: Emergency physicians' responses to families following patient death. Ann Emerg Med 19:125, 1990.

25. Marco CA: Coping with unexpected death. J Coll Aesculapium Spring: 29, 1993.

26. Olsen JC, Buenese ML, Falso W: Death in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med 31:758, 1998.

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