Chapter References

1. National Spinal Cord Injury Statistical Center (NSCISC): Spinal Cord Injury: Facts and Figures at a Glance. Birmingham, AL: NSCISC, 1998.

2. Woolsey RM: Modern concepts of therapy and management of spinal cord injuries. Crit Rev Neurobiol 4:137, 1988.

3. Fife D, Kraus J: Anatomic location of spinal cord injury relationship to the cause of injury. Spine 11:2-5, 1986.

4. Kaufman WA, Lunsford TR, Lunsford BR, Lance LL: Comparison of three prefabricated cervical collars. Orthop Prosthet 39:4:21, 1986.

5. Mahoney B: Cervical spine injuries, in Ruiz E, Cicero JJ (eds): Emergency Management of Skeletal Injuries. St Louis: Mosby, 1995, pp 71-94.

6. Majernick TG, Bieniek R, Houston JB, et al: Cervical spine movement during orotracheal intubation. Ann Emerg Med 15:417, 1986.

7. Aprahamian C, Thompson BM, Finger WA, et al: Experimental cervical spine injury model: Evaluation of airway management and splinting techniques. Ann Emerg Med 13:584, 1984.

8. Holley J, Jorden R: Airway management in patients with unstable cervical spine fractures. Ann Emerg Med 18:1237, 1989.

9. Bivins HG, Ford S, Bezmalinovic Z, et al: The effect of axial traction during orotracheal intubation of the trauma victim with an unstable cervical spine. Ann Emerg Med 17:25, 1988.

10. Hoffman JR, Schriger DL, Mower W, et al: Low risk criteria for cervical spine radiography in blunt trauma: A prospective study. Ann Emerg Med 21:1454, 1992.

11. Velmahos GC, Theodorou D, Tatevossian R, et al: Radiographic cervical spine evaluation in the alert blunt trauma victim: Much ado about nothing? J Trauma 40:768, 1996.

12. Roberge RJ, Wears RC, Kelly M, et al: Selective application of cervical spine radiography in alert victims of blunt trauma: A prospective study. J Trauma 28:784, 1988.

13. Kreipke DL, Gillespie KR, McCarthy MC, et al: Reliability of indications for cervical spine films in trauma patients. J Trauma 29:1438, 1989.

14. Blahd WH, Iserson KV, Bjelland JC, et al: Efficacy of the post-traumatic cross table lateral view of the cervical spine. J Emerg Med 2:243, 1985.

15. Ross SE, Schwab CW, David ET, et al: Clearing the cervical spine: Initial radiologic evaluation. J Trauma 27:1055, 1987.

16. Harris J: Spine, including soft tissues of the pharynx and neck, in Harris J, Harris W, Novelline R (eds): The Radiology of Emergency Medicine, 3d ed. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1993, pp 127-282.

17. Paakkala T: Prevertebral soft tissue changes in cervical spine injury. CRC Crit Rev Diagn Imaging 24:201, 1985.

18. Acheson MB, Livingston RR, Richardson ML, et al: High-resolution CT scanning in the evaluation of cervical spine fractures: Comparison with plain film examinations. AJR 148:1179, 1987.

19. Woodring JH, Lee CL: The role and limitations of computed tomographic scanning in the evaluation of cervical trauma. J Trauma 33:698, 1992.

20. Mirvis SE, NessAiver M: Magnetic resonance imaging of acute cervical spine trauma, in Harris JH, Mirvis SE (eds): The Radiology of Acute Cervical Spine Trauma. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996, pp 114-179.

21. White AA III, Punjabi MM: Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine, 2d ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1990.

22. Bauer RD, Errico TJ, Waugh TR, Cohen W: Evaluation and diagnosis of cervical spine injuries: A review of the literature. Cent Nerv Syst Trauma 4:71, 1987.

23. Mouradian WH, Fietti VG, Cochran GVB: Fractures of the odontoid: A laboratory and clinical study of mechanisms. Orthop North Am Clin 9:985, 1978.

24. Schatzker J, Rorabeck CH, Waddel JW: Fractures of the dens 1971. J Bone Joint Surg 53B:392, 1971.

25. Stauffer ES: Management of spine fractures C3-C7. Orthop Clin North Am 17:45, 1986.

26. McAfee PC, Hansen YA, Fredrickson BE, et al: The value of computed tomography in thoracolumbar fractures. J Bone Joint Surg 65A:461, 1983.

27. Smith WS, Kaufer H: Patterns and mechanisms of lumbar injuries associated with lap seat belts. J Bone Joint Surg 51A:239, 1969.

28. Savitsky E, Votey S: Emergency department approach to acute thoracolumbar spine injury. J Emerg Med 15:49, 1997.

29. Galli RL, Spaite DW, Simon RR: Emergency Orthopedics: The Spine. Norwalk, CT: Appleton & Lange, 1989, p 9.

30. Van Hare RS: The ring of C2 and evaluation of the cross-table lateral view of the cervical spine. Ann Emerg Med 21:733, 1992.

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