Chapter References

1. Rockall TA, Logan RF, Devlin HB, et al: Incidence of and mortality from acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the United Kingdom: Steering Committee and members of the National Audit of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage. BMJ 311:222, 1995.

2. Longstreth GF: Epidemiology and outcome of patients hospitalized with acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol 92:419, 1997.

3. Longstreth GF: Epidemiology of hospitalization for acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol 90:206, 1995.

4. Machicado GA, Jensen DM: Acute and chronic management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding: Cost-effective approaches. Gastroenterologist 5:189, 1997.

5. Tobin K, Klein J, Barbieri C, et al: Utility of routine admission chest radiographs in patients with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage admitted to an intensive care unit. Am J Med 101:349, 1996.

6. Suzman MS, Talmor M, Jennis R, et al: Accurate localization and surgical management of active lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage with technetium-labeled erythrocyte scintigraphy. Ann Surg 224:29, 1996.

7. Vernava AM, Moore BA, Longo WE, et al: Lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Dis Colon Rectum 40:846, 1997.

8. Richter JM, Christensen MR, Kaplan LM, et al: Effective of current technology in the diagnosis and management of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Gastrointest Endosc 41:93, 1995.

9. Ng DA, Opekla FG, Beck DE, et al: Predictive value of technetium Tc 99m-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy for positive angiogram in massive lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Dis Colon Rectum 40:471, 1997.

10. Wilcox CM, Alexander LN, Cotsonis G: A prospective characterization of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage presenting with hematochezia. Am J Gastroenterol 92:231, 1997.

11. Leather RA, et al: Iced gastric lavage: A tradition without foundation. Can Med Assoc J 136:1245, 1987.

12. Cello JP: Endoscopy management of esophageal variceal hemorrhage: Injection, banding, glue, octreotide or a combination? Semin Gastrointest Dis 8:179, 1997.

13. Avgerinos A, Armonis A, Manokakopoulos S, et al: Endoscopic sclerotherapy versus variceal ligation in the long-term management of patients with cirrhosis after variceal bleeding: A prospective randomized study. J Hepatol 26:1034, 1997.

14. Jenkins SA, Shields R, Davies M, et al: A multicenter randomized trial comparing octreotide and injection sclerotherapy in the management and outcome of acute variceal hemorrhage. Gut 41:526, 1997.

15. Avgerinos A, Nevens F, Raptis S, et al: Early administration of somatostatin and efficacy of sclerotherapy in acute oesophageal variceal bleeds: The European Acute Bleeding Oesophageal Variceal Episodes (ABOVE) randomized trial. Lancet 350:1495, 1997.

16. Beeson I, Ingrand P, Person B, et al: Sclerotherapy with or without octreotide for acute variceal bleeding. N Engl J Med 333:555, 1995.

17. Imperiale TF, Birgisson S: Somatostatin or octreotide compared with H 2 antagonists and placebo in the management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 127:1062, 1997.

18. Khuroo MS, Yattoo GN, Javid G, et al: A comparison of omeprazole and placebo for bleeding peptic ulcer. N Engl J Med 336:1054, 1997.

19. Schaffalitzky de Muckadell OB, Havelund T, Harding H, et al: Effect of omeprazole on the outcome of endoscopically treated bleeding peptic ulcers: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre study. Scand J Gastroenterol 32:320, 1997.

20. Grace ND: Diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension: American College of Gastroenterology Practice Parameters Committee. Am J Gastroenterol 92:1081, 1997.

21. Avgerinos A, Rekoumis G, Klonis C, et al: Propranolol in the prevention of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis undergoing endoscopic sclerotherapy: A randomized controlled trial. J Hepatol 19:301, 1993.

22. Santander C, Gravalos RG, Gomez-Cedenilla A, et al: Antimicrobial therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection versus long-term maintenance antisecretion treatment in the prevention of recurrent hemorrhage from peptic ulcer: Prospective nonrandomized trial on 125 patients. Am J Gastroenterol 91:1549, 1996.

23. Collins R, Langman M: Treatment with histamine H2 antagonists in acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: Implications of randomized trials. N Engl J Med 313:660, 1985.

24. Corley DA, Stefan AM, Wolf M, et al: Early indicators of prognosis in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Am J Gastroenterol 93:336, 1998.

25. Rockall TA, Logan RF, Devlin HB, et al: Selection of patients for early discharge or outpatient care after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: National Audit of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage. Lancet 347:1138, 1996.

26. Longstreth GF, Feitelberg SP: Outpatient care of selected patients with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Lancet 345:108, 1995.

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