Chapter References

1. Rockall TA, Logan RF, Devlin HB, et al: Incidence of and mortality from acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage in the United Kingdom: Steering Committee and members of the National Audit of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage. BMJ 311:222, 1995.

2. Longstreth GF: Epidemiology and outcome of patients hospitalized with acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol 92:419, 1997.

3. Longstreth GF: Epidemiology of hospitalization for acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A population-based study. Am J Gastroenterol 90:206, 1995.

4. Machicado GA, Jensen DM: Acute and chronic management of lower gastrointestinal bleeding: Cost-effective approaches. Gastroenterologist 5:189, 1997.

5. Tobin K, Klein J, Barbieri C, et al: Utility of routine admission chest radiographs in patients with acute gastrointestinal hemorrhage admitted to an intensive care unit. Am J Med 101:349, 1996.

6. Suzman MS, Talmor M, Jennis R, et al: Accurate localization and surgical management of active lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage with technetium-labeled erythrocyte scintigraphy. Ann Surg 224:29, 1996.

7. Vernava AM, Moore BA, Longo WE, et al: Lower gastrointestinal bleeding. Dis Colon Rectum 40:846, 1997.

8. Richter JM, Christensen MR, Kaplan LM, et al: Effective of current technology in the diagnosis and management of lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Gastrointest Endosc 41:93, 1995.

9. Ng DA, Opekla FG, Beck DE, et al: Predictive value of technetium Tc 99m-labelled red blood cell scintigraphy for positive angiogram in massive lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Dis Colon Rectum 40:471, 1997.

10. Wilcox CM, Alexander LN, Cotsonis G: A prospective characterization of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage presenting with hematochezia. Am J Gastroenterol 92:231, 1997.

11. Leather RA, et al: Iced gastric lavage: A tradition without foundation. Can Med Assoc J 136:1245, 1987.

12. Cello JP: Endoscopy management of esophageal variceal hemorrhage: Injection, banding, glue, octreotide or a combination? Semin Gastrointest Dis 8:179, 1997.

13. Avgerinos A, Armonis A, Manokakopoulos S, et al: Endoscopic sclerotherapy versus variceal ligation in the long-term management of patients with cirrhosis after variceal bleeding: A prospective randomized study. J Hepatol 26:1034, 1997.

14. Jenkins SA, Shields R, Davies M, et al: A multicenter randomized trial comparing octreotide and injection sclerotherapy in the management and outcome of acute variceal hemorrhage. Gut 41:526, 1997.

15. Avgerinos A, Nevens F, Raptis S, et al: Early administration of somatostatin and efficacy of sclerotherapy in acute oesophageal variceal bleeds: The European Acute Bleeding Oesophageal Variceal Episodes (ABOVE) randomized trial. Lancet 350:1495, 1997.

16. Beeson I, Ingrand P, Person B, et al: Sclerotherapy with or without octreotide for acute variceal bleeding. N Engl J Med 333:555, 1995.

17. Imperiale TF, Birgisson S: Somatostatin or octreotide compared with H 2 antagonists and placebo in the management of acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: A meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 127:1062, 1997.

18. Khuroo MS, Yattoo GN, Javid G, et al: A comparison of omeprazole and placebo for bleeding peptic ulcer. N Engl J Med 336:1054, 1997.

19. Schaffalitzky de Muckadell OB, Havelund T, Harding H, et al: Effect of omeprazole on the outcome of endoscopically treated bleeding peptic ulcers: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled multicentre study. Scand J Gastroenterol 32:320, 1997.

20. Grace ND: Diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension: American College of Gastroenterology Practice Parameters Committee. Am J Gastroenterol 92:1081, 1997.

21. Avgerinos A, Rekoumis G, Klonis C, et al: Propranolol in the prevention of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis undergoing endoscopic sclerotherapy: A randomized controlled trial. J Hepatol 19:301, 1993.

22. Santander C, Gravalos RG, Gomez-Cedenilla A, et al: Antimicrobial therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection versus long-term maintenance antisecretion treatment in the prevention of recurrent hemorrhage from peptic ulcer: Prospective nonrandomized trial on 125 patients. Am J Gastroenterol 91:1549, 1996.

23. Collins R, Langman M: Treatment with histamine H2 antagonists in acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage: Implications of randomized trials. N Engl J Med 313:660, 1985.

24. Corley DA, Stefan AM, Wolf M, et al: Early indicators of prognosis in upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Am J Gastroenterol 93:336, 1998.

25. Rockall TA, Logan RF, Devlin HB, et al: Selection of patients for early discharge or outpatient care after acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage: National Audit of Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Haemorrhage. Lancet 347:1138, 1996.

26. Longstreth GF, Feitelberg SP: Outpatient care of selected patients with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Lancet 345:108, 1995.

How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

If you seriously want know how to get rid of bed bugs, then this may be the most important letter you'll ever read!... Discover How To Solve Your Dilemma In What You Thought To Be Your Dream Vacation And Easily Taking The First Step To Conquer The Bed Bugs Trauma You May Have At This Moment! It doesn't matter, if you have never have any ideas on how to getting rid of bed bugs and how to banish it quickly in the shortest time possible, then this golden guides will show you everything steps you need to take against bed bugs banishing!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment