Chapter References

1. Scalea TM, Goldstein AS, Phillips TF, et al: An analysis of 161 falls from a height: The "jumper syndrome." J Trauma 26:706, 1986

2. American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma: Advanced Life Support Course, Student Manual. ACS, 1993.

3. Scalea TM, Holman M, Fourtes M, et al: Central venous blood oxygen saturation: An early, accurate measurement of volume during hemorrhage. J Trauma 28:725, 1988.

4. Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis SE, White CS, Pomertanz SM: MR imaging evaluation of hemidiaphragms in acute blunt trauma: Experience with 16 patients. AJR 167:397, 1996.

5. Saunders CJ, Battistella FD, Whetzel TP, Stokes RB: Percutaneous diagnostic peritoneal lavage using a Veress needle versus an open technique: A prospective randomized trial. J Trauma 44:883, 1998.

6. Goldstein AS, Scalfani SJA, Kupterstein NH, et al: The diagnostic superiority of computed tomography. J Trauma 25:939, 1985.

7. Otomo Y, Henmi H, Mashiko K, et al: New diagnostic peritoneal lavage criteria for diagnosis of intestinal injury. J Trauma 44:991, 1998.

8. Branney SW, Wolfe RE, Moore EE, et al: Quantitative sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting free intraperitoneal fluid. J Trauma 39:375, 1995.

9. McKinney MG, Lentz K, Nunez D, et al: Can ultrasound replace diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of blunt trauma? J Trauma 37:439, 1994.

10. Glaser K, Ischmelitsch J, Kluiger P, et al: Ultrasonography in the management of blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma. Arch Surg 129:742, 1994.

11. Tsang BD, Panacek EA, Brant WE, Wisner DH: Effect of oral contrast administration for abdominal computed tomography in the evaluation of acute blunt trauma. Ann Emerg Med 30:7-13, 1997.

12. Chiu WC, Cushing BM, Rodriquez A, et al: Abdominal injuries without hemoperitoneum: A potential limitation of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST). J Trauma 42:617, 1997.

13. Renz BM, Feliciano DV: Unnecessary laparotomies for trauma: A prospective study of morbidity. J Trauma 38:350, 1995.

14. Zubowski R, Nallathambi M, Ivatury R, Stahl W: Selective conservatism in abdominal stab wounds: The efficacy of serial physical examination. J Trauma 28:1665, 1988.

15. McCarthy MC, Lowdermilk GA, Canal DF, Broadie TA: Prediction of injury caused by penetrating wounds to the abdomen, flank, and back. Arch Surg 126:962, 1991.

16. Sclafani SJA, Shaftan GW, Scalea TM, et al: Nonoperative salvage of computer tomograph-diagnosed splenic injuries: Utilization of angiography for triage and embolization for hemostasis. J Trauma 39:818, 1995.

17. Mirvis SE, Whitley NO, Gens DR: Blunt splenic trauma in adults: CT-based classification and correlation with prognosis and treatment. Radiology 171:133, 1989.

18. Pachter HL, Knudson MM, Esrig B, et al: Status of nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injuries in 1995: A multicenter experience with 404 patients. J Trauma 40:31, 1996.

19. Carillo EH, Spain DA, Wohltmann CD, et al: Interventional treatment can improve the outcome of nonoperative management of hepatic injuries [abst]. J Trauma 45:202, 1998.

20. Davis KA, Fabian TC, Croce MA: Improved success in nonoperative management of blunt splenic injuries: Embolization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysms. J Trauma 44:1008, 1998.

21. Boyd-Kranis R, Hastings G, Fan CM, et al: Angiography and subselective artery embolization for nonoperative management of blunt splenic injury [abst]. J Trauma 45:199, 1998.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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