Chapter References

1. Scalea TM, Goldstein AS, Phillips TF, et al: An analysis of 161 falls from a height: The "jumper syndrome." J Trauma 26:706, 1986

2. American College of Surgeons, Committee on Trauma: Advanced Life Support Course, Student Manual. ACS, 1993.

3. Scalea TM, Holman M, Fourtes M, et al: Central venous blood oxygen saturation: An early, accurate measurement of volume during hemorrhage. J Trauma 28:725, 1988.

4. Shanmuganathan K, Mirvis SE, White CS, Pomertanz SM: MR imaging evaluation of hemidiaphragms in acute blunt trauma: Experience with 16 patients. AJR 167:397, 1996.

5. Saunders CJ, Battistella FD, Whetzel TP, Stokes RB: Percutaneous diagnostic peritoneal lavage using a Veress needle versus an open technique: A prospective randomized trial. J Trauma 44:883, 1998.

6. Goldstein AS, Scalfani SJA, Kupterstein NH, et al: The diagnostic superiority of computed tomography. J Trauma 25:939, 1985.

7. Otomo Y, Henmi H, Mashiko K, et al: New diagnostic peritoneal lavage criteria for diagnosis of intestinal injury. J Trauma 44:991, 1998.

8. Branney SW, Wolfe RE, Moore EE, et al: Quantitative sensitivity of ultrasound in detecting free intraperitoneal fluid. J Trauma 39:375, 1995.

9. McKinney MG, Lentz K, Nunez D, et al: Can ultrasound replace diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the assessment of blunt trauma? J Trauma 37:439, 1994.

10. Glaser K, Ischmelitsch J, Kluiger P, et al: Ultrasonography in the management of blunt abdominal and thoracic trauma. Arch Surg 129:742, 1994.

11. Tsang BD, Panacek EA, Brant WE, Wisner DH: Effect of oral contrast administration for abdominal computed tomography in the evaluation of acute blunt trauma. Ann Emerg Med 30:7-13, 1997.

12. Chiu WC, Cushing BM, Rodriquez A, et al: Abdominal injuries without hemoperitoneum: A potential limitation of focused abdominal sonography for trauma (FAST). J Trauma 42:617, 1997.

13. Renz BM, Feliciano DV: Unnecessary laparotomies for trauma: A prospective study of morbidity. J Trauma 38:350, 1995.

14. Zubowski R, Nallathambi M, Ivatury R, Stahl W: Selective conservatism in abdominal stab wounds: The efficacy of serial physical examination. J Trauma 28:1665, 1988.

15. McCarthy MC, Lowdermilk GA, Canal DF, Broadie TA: Prediction of injury caused by penetrating wounds to the abdomen, flank, and back. Arch Surg 126:962, 1991.

16. Sclafani SJA, Shaftan GW, Scalea TM, et al: Nonoperative salvage of computer tomograph-diagnosed splenic injuries: Utilization of angiography for triage and embolization for hemostasis. J Trauma 39:818, 1995.

17. Mirvis SE, Whitley NO, Gens DR: Blunt splenic trauma in adults: CT-based classification and correlation with prognosis and treatment. Radiology 171:133, 1989.

18. Pachter HL, Knudson MM, Esrig B, et al: Status of nonoperative management of blunt hepatic injuries in 1995: A multicenter experience with 404 patients. J Trauma 40:31, 1996.

19. Carillo EH, Spain DA, Wohltmann CD, et al: Interventional treatment can improve the outcome of nonoperative management of hepatic injuries [abst]. J Trauma 45:202, 1998.

20. Davis KA, Fabian TC, Croce MA: Improved success in nonoperative management of blunt splenic injuries: Embolization of splenic artery pseudoaneurysms. J Trauma 44:1008, 1998.

21. Boyd-Kranis R, Hastings G, Fan CM, et al: Angiography and subselective artery embolization for nonoperative management of blunt splenic injury [abst]. J Trauma 45:199, 1998.

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