Chapter References

1. Schwab CW, Kauder DR: Trauma in the geriatric patient. Arch Surg 127:701, 1992

2. MacKenzie EJ, Morris JA, Edelstein SL: Effect of pre-existing disease on length of hospital stay in trauma patients. J Trauma 29:757, 1989.

3. Morris JA, MacKenzie EJ, Edelstein SL: The effect of pre-existing conditions on mortality in trauma patients. JAMA 263:1942, 1990.

4. Tinetti ME, Speechley M: Prevention of falls among the elderly. N Engl J Med 320:1055, 1989.

5. Li G, Baker SP, Longlois JA, Kelen GD: Are female drivers safer? An application of the decomposition method. Epidemiology 9:379, 1998.

6. Hakamies-Blomqvist LE: Fatal accidents of older drivers. Accidents Anal Prevent 25:19, 1993.

7. Sklar DP, Demarest GB, McFeeley P: Increased pedestrian mortality among the elderly. Am J Emerg Med 7:387, 1989.

8. Scalea TM, Simon HM, Duncan AO, et al: Geriatric blunt trauma: Improved survival with early invasive monitoring. J Trauma 30:129, 1990.

9. Demarest GB, Osler TM, Clevenger FW: Injuries in the elderly: Evaluation and initial response. Geriatrics 45:36, 1990.

10. Kirkpatrick JB, Pearson J: Fatal cerebral injury in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 26:489, 1978.

11. Ryan MD, Henderson JJ: The epidemiology of fractures and fracture-dislocations of the cervical spine. Injury 23:38, 1992.

12. Allen JE, Schwab CW: Blunt chest trauma in the elderly. Am Surg 51:697, 1985.

13. Ma OJ, Mateer JR, Ogata M, et al: Prospective analysis of a rapid trauma ultrasound examination performed by emergency physicians. J Trauma 38:879, 1995.

14. Sartoretti C, Sartoretti-Schefer S, Ruckert R, et al: Comorbid conditions in old patients with femur fractures. J Trauma 43:570, 1997.

15. Ma MH-M, MacKenzie E, Alberta R, Kelen GD: Compliance with pre-hospital protocols for major trauma patients. J Trauma 46:168, 1999.

16. Horst HM, Obeid FN, Sorensen VJ, et al: Factors influencing survival of elderly trauma patients. Crit Care Med 14:681, 1986.

17. Smith DP, Enderson BL, Maull KI: Trauma in the elderly: Determinants of outcome. South Med J 83:171, 1990.

18. van Aalst JA, Morris JA, Yates HK, et al: Severely injured geriatric patients return to independent living: A study of factors influencing function and independence. J Trauma 31:1096, 1991.

19. Osler T, Hales K, Baack B, et al: Trauma in the elderly. Am J Surg 156:537, 1988.

20. Oreskovich MR, Howard JD, Copass MK, et al: Geriatric trauma: Injury patterns and outcome. J Trauma 24:565, 1984.

21. DeMaria EJ, Kenney PR, Merriam MA, et al: Survival after trauma in geriatric patients. Ann Surg 206:738, 1987.

22. DeMaria EJ, Kenney PR, Merriam MA, et al: Aggressive trauma care benefits the elderly. J Trauma 27:1200, 1987.

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