1. Varon J, Fromm RE, Levine RL: Emergency department procedures and length of stay for critically ill medical patients. Ann Emerg Med 23:546, 1994.
2. Svenson J, Besinger B, Stapczynski JS: Critical care of medical and surgical patients in the ED: Length of stay and initiation of intensive care procedures. Am J Emerg Med 15:654, 1997.
3. Rivers EP, Doyle D Nguyen HB, et al: Physiologic assessment of the critically ill: An outcome evaluation of emergency department intervention. Acad Emerg Med 5:530, 1998.
4. Rivers EP, Rady MY, Martin GB, et al: Venous hyperoxia after cardiac arrest: Characterization of a defect in systemic oxygen utilization. Chest 102:1787, 1992.
5. Wo CC, Shoemaker WC, Appel PL, et al: Unreliability of blood pressure and heart rate to evaluate cardiac output in emergency resuscitation and critical illness. Crit Care Med 21:218, 1993.
6. American College of Chest Physicians-Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference. Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med 20: 864, 1992.
7. Bone RC: Sir Isaac Newton, sepsis, SIRS, and CARS. Crit Care Med 24:1125, 1996.
8. Rangel-Frausto MS, Pittet D, Costigan M, et al: The natural history of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): A prospective study [see comments]. JAMA 273:117, 1995.
9. Meade P, Shoemaker WC, Donnelly TJ, et al: Temporal patterns of hemodynamics, oxygen transport, cytokine activity, and complement activity in the development of adult respiratory distress syndrome after severe injury. J Trauma 36:651, 1994.
10. Fink M: Shock: An overview, in Intensive Care Medicine, Boston, Little Brown, 1991, pp 1417-1435.
11. Rady M, Jafry S, Rivers E, Alexander M: Characterization of systemic oxygen transport in end-stage chronic congestive heart failure. Am Heart J 128:774, 1994.
12. Quezado ZN, Keiser HR, Parker MM: Reversible myocardial depression after massive catecholamine release from a pheochromocytoma. Crit Care Med 20:549, 1992.
13. Connors AF Jr, Speroff T, Dawson NV, et al: The effectiveness of right heart catheterization in the initial care of critically ill patients: SUPPORT Investigators [see comments]. JAMA 276:889, 1996.
14. Schierhout G, Roberts I: Fluid resuscitation with colloid or crystalloid solutions in critically ill patients: A systematic review of randomized trials. BMJ 316:961, 1998.
15. Rady MY, Kirkman E, Cranley J, Little RA: Nociceptive somatic nerve stimulation and skeletal muscle injury modify systemic hemodynamics and oxygen transport and utilization after resuscitation from hemorrhage. Crit Care Med 24:623, 1996.
16. Greenburg AG: A physiologic basis for red blood cell transfusion decisions. Am J Surg 170(suppl 6A):44S, 1995.
17. Rady MY, Rivers EP, Martin GD, et al: Continuous central venous oximetry and shock index in the emergency department: Use in the evaluation of clinical shock. Am J Emerg Med 10:538,
18. Porter JM, Ivatury RR: In search of the optimal end points of resuscitation in trauma patients: A review. J Trauma 44:908, 1998.
19. Gattinoni L, Brazzi L, Pelosi P, et al: A trail of goal-oriented hemodyanmic therapy in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med 333:1025, 1995.
20. Blake HC, Rivers EP, Dereczyk B, et al: Adrenal insufficiency in high-risk emergency department patients. Acad Emerg Med 3:438, 1996.
21. Cooper DJ, Walley KR, Wiggs BR, Russell JA: Bicarbonate does not improve hemodynamics in critically ill patients who have lactic acidosis. A prospective, controlled clinical study [see comments]. Ann Intern Med 112:492, 1990.
22. Arieff AI: Current concepts in acid-base balance: Use of bicarbonate in patients with metabolic acidosis. Anaesth Crit Care 7:182, 1996.
23. Rady MY, Edwards JD, Rivers EP, Alexander M: Measurement of oxygen consumption after uncomplicated acute myocardial infarction. Chest 104: 930, 1993.
24. Bakker J, Gris P, Coffernils M, et al: Serial blood lactate levels can predict the development of multiple organ failure following septic shock. Am J Surg 171:221, 1996.
25. Rutherford EJ, Morris JA, Reed CW, Hall KS: Base deficit stratifies mortality and determines therapy. J Trauma 33:417, 1992.
26. Rady MY: The role of central venous oximetry, lactic acid concentration and shock index in the evaluation of clinical shock: A review. Resuscitation 24:55, 1992.
27. Ho KM, Joynt GM, Tan P: A comparison of central venous pressure and common iliac venous pressure in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Crit Care Med 26:461, 1998.
28. Scalea TM, Hartnett RW, Duncan AO, et al: Central venous oxygen saturation: A useful clinical tool in trauma patients. J Trauma 30:1539, 1990.
29. Krafft P, Steltzer H, Hiesmayr M, et al: Mixed venous oxygen saturation in critically ill septic shock patients: The role of defined events. Chest 103:900, 1993.
30. Creamer JE, Edwards JD, Nightingale P: Hemodynamic and oxygen transport variables in cardiogenic shock secondary to acute myocardial infarction, and response to treatment. Am J Cardiol 65:1297, 1990.
31. Rivers EP, Martin GB, Smithline H, et al: The clinical implications of continuous central venous oxygen saturation during human CPR. Ann Emerg Med 21:1094, 1992.
32. Cuscheri J, Hays G, Rivers EP, et al: Arterial-venous carbon dioxide gradients as an indicator of cardiac index: A comparison between the mixed and central venous circulation. Crit Care Med 26(abstract):A62, 1998.
33. Cuscheri J, Rivers EP, Caruso J, et al: A Comparison of transesophageal Doppler, thermodilution and Fick cardiac output measurements in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 26(abstract):A56, 1998.
34. Shoemaker WC, Wo CC, Bishop MH, et al: Noninvasive hemodynamic monitoring of critical patients in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 3:675, 1996.
35. Denninghoff KR, Smith MH, Hillman LW, et al: Retinal venous oxygen saturation correlates with blood volume. Acad Emerg Med 5:577, 1998.
Was this article helpful?