Chapter References

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1. Stein MD: Medical complications of intravenous drug use. J Gen Intern Med 5:249, 1990.

2. Cherubin CE, Sapira JD: The medical complications of drug addiction and the medical assessment of the intravenous drug user: 25 years later. Ann Intern Med 119:1017, 1993.

3. O'Connor PG, Samet JH, Stein MD: Management of hospitalized intravenous drug users: Role of the internist. Am J Med 96:551, 1994.

4. National Institute on Drug Abuse: National Household Survey on Drug Abuse: Population Estimates 1990. Washington, DC, US Department of Health and Human Services, publication no (ADM) 91-1732, 1991.

5. Makower RM, Pennycook AG, Moulton C: Intravenous drug abusers attending an inner city accident and emergency department. Arch Emerg Med 9:346, 1992.

6. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, no 2. Atlanta, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1995, p 7.

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8. Selwyn PA, Hartel D, Lewis Va, et al: A prospective study of the risk of tuberculosis among intravenous drug users with human immunodeficiency virus infection. New Engl J Med 320:545, 1989.

9. Greenberg AE, Thomas PA, Landesman SH, et al: The spectrum of HIV-1 related disease among outpatients in New York City. AIDS 6:849, 1992.

10. Spijkerman IJ, van Ameijden EJ, Mientjes GH, et al: Human immunodeficiency virus infection and other risk factors for skin abscesses and endocarditis among injection drug users. J Clin Epidemiol 49:1149, 1996.

11. Pulvirenti JJ, Kerns E, Benson C, et al: Infective endocarditis in injection drug users: Importance of human immunodeficiency virus serostatus and degree of immunosuppression. Clin Infect Dis 22:40, 1996.

12. Selwyn PA, Feingolf AR, Hartel D, et al: Increased risk of bacterial pneumonia in HIV-infected intravenous drug users without AIDS. AIDS 2:267, 1988.

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14. Samet JH, Shevitz A, Fowle J, Singer DE: Hospitalization decision in febrile intravenous drug users. Am J Med 89:53, 1990.

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16. Weisse AB, Heller DR, Schimentoi RJ, et al: The febrile parenteral drug user: A prospective study in 121 patients. Am J Med 94:274, 1993.

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19. Harrison DW, Walls RM: "Cotton fever": A benign febrile syndrome in intravenous drug abusers. J Emerg Med 8:135, 1990.

20. Selwyn PA, Sckell B, Alcabes P, et al: High risk of active tuberculosis in HIV-infected drug users with cutaneous anergy. JAMA 268:504, 1992.

21. Hind CR: Pulmonary complications of intravenous drug misuse: 1. Epidemiology and non-infective complications. Thorax 45:891, 1990.

22. Pare JP, Gilles C, Fraser RS: Long-term follow-up of drug abusers with intravenous talcosis. Am Rev Respir Dis 139:233, 1989.

23. Brunette DD, Plummer DW: Pulmonary embolization of needle fragments resulting from intravenous drug abuse. Am J Emerg Med 6:124, 1988.

24. Hestad K, Updike M, Selnes OA, Royal W: Cognitive sequelae of repeated head injury in a population of intravenous drug abusers. Scand J Psychol 36:246, 1995.

25. Rizzuto N, Morbin M, Ferrari S, et al: Delayed spongiform leukoencephalopathy after heroin use. Acta Neuropathol 94:87, 1997.

26. Prendergast H, Jerrard D, O'Connell J: Atypical presentations of epidural abscess in intravenous drug abusers. Am J Emerg Med 15:158, 1997.

27. Mathew J, Addai T, Anand A, et al: Clinical features, site of involvement, bacteriologic findings, and outcome of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users. Arch Intern Med 155:1641, 1995.

28. Hind CR: Pulmonary complications of intravenous drug misuse: 2. Infective and HIV related complications. Thorax 45:957, 1990.

29. Beaufoy A: Infections in intravenous drug users: A two-year review. Can J Infect Control 8:7, 1993.

30. Stone MH, Stone DH, MacGregor HA: Anatomical distribution of soft tissue sepsis sites in intravenous drug misusers attending an accident and emergency department. Br J Addict 85:1495, 1990.

31. Summanen PH, Talan DA, Strong C, et al: Bacteriology of skin and soft-tissue infections: Comparison of infections in intravenous drug users and individuals with no history of intravenous drug use. Clin Infect Dis 20(suppl 2):S279, 1995.

32. Williams MF, Eisele DW, Wyatt SH: Neck needle foreign bodies in intravenous drug abusers. Laryngoscope 103(1 part 1):59, 1993.

33. Passaro DJ, Benson WS, McGee J, et al: Wound botulism associated with black tar heroin among injecting drug users. JAMA 279:859, 1998.

34. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: Tetanus among injecting-drug users—California, 1997. Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47:149, 1998.

35. Charney MA, Stern PJ: Digital ischemia in clandestine intravenous drug users. J Hand Surg 16A:308, 1991.

36. Woodburn KR, Murie JA: Vascular complications of injecting drug misuse. Br J Surg 83:1329, 1996.

37. Welch GH, Reid DB, Pollock JG: Infected false aneurysms in the groin of intravenous drug abusers. Br J Surg 77:330, 1990.

38. Cheng SW, Fok M, Wong J: Infected femoral pseudoaneurysm in intravenous drug abusers. Br J Surg 79:510, 1992.

39. Levi N, Rordam P, Jensen LP, Schroeder TV: Femoral pseudoaneurysms in drug addicts. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 13:361, 1997.

40. Chadrasekar PH, Narula AP: Bone and joint infections in intravenous drug abusers. Rev Infect Dis 8:904, 1986.

41. Bisbe J, Miro JM, Latorre X, et al: Disseminated candidiasis in addicts who use brown heroin: Report of 83 cases and review. Clin Infect Dis 15:910, 1992.

42. Sapico FL, Montgomerie JZ: Vertebral osteomyelitis in intravenous drug abusers: Report of three cases and review of the literature. Rev Infect Dis 2:196, 1980.

43. Lee WM: Hepatitis B virus infection. N Engl J Med 337:1733, 1997.

44. Villano SA, Nelson KE, Vlahov D, et al: Hepatitis A among homosexual men and injection drug users: More evidence for vaccination. Clin Infect Dis 25:726, 1997.

45. Fong TL, Lee SR, Kim JP, et al: Prevalence of hepatitis G virus among intravenous drug abusers in Los Angeles. Clin Infect Dis 25:165, 1997.

46. Schlossberg D, Jan AM: Endopthalmitis in intravenous drug abuse. Ann Ophthalmol 25:77, 1993.

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