Chapter References

1. Stein C: The control of pain in peripheral tissues by opioids. N Engl J Med 332:1685, 1995.

2. Hoffman JR, Schriger DL, Luo J: The empiric use of naloxone in patients with altered mental status: A reappraisal. Ann Emerg Med 20:246, 1991.

3. Wagner K, Brough L, MacMillan I: Intravenous vs subcutaneous naloxone for out-to hospital management of presumed opioid overdose. Acad Emerg Med 5:283, 1998.

4. Schug SA, Zech D, Grond S: Adverse effects of systemic opioid analgesics. Drug Safety 7:200, 1992.

5. Michaelis LL, Hickey PR, Clark TA, et al: Ventricular irritability associated with the use of naloxone hydrochloride. Ann Thorac Surg 18:608, 1984.

6. Position statement: Gastric lavage. Clin Toxicol 35:711, 1997.

7. Smith DA, Leake L, Loffin JR, Yealy DM: Is admission after intravenous heroin overdose necessary? Ann Emerg Med 21:1326, 1992.

8. Perrone JM, Hamilton RH, Nelson L, et al: Scopolamine poisoning among heroin users—New York City, Philadelphia and Baltimore 1995 and 1996. MMWR 45:392, 1996.

9. Burns RS, Lewitt PA, Ebert MH, et al: The clinical syndrome of striatal dopamine deficiency: Parkinsonism induced by MPTP. N Engl J Med 312:1418, 1985.

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