Chapter References

1. Burney RE, Maio RF, Maynard F, et al: Incidence, characteristics, and outcome of spinal cord injury at trauma centers in North America. Arch Surg 128:596, 1993.

2. White AA, Panjabi MM: Clinical Biomechanics of the Spine, 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1990.

3. Denis F: The three column spine and its significance in the classification of acute thoracolumbar spinal injuries. Spine 8:817, 1983.

4. Woodring JH, Lee C, Jenkins K: Spinal fractures in blunt chest trauma. J Trauma 28:789, 1988.

5. Denis F, Davis S, Comfort T: Sacral fractures: An important problem. Retrospective analysis of 236 cases. Clin Orthop 227:67, 1988.

6. Bracken MB, Shepard MJ, Collins WF, et al: A randomized, controlled trial of methylprednisolone or naloxone in the treatment of acute spinal cord injury: Results of the second national acute spinal cord injury study. N Engl J Med 322:1405, 1990.

7. Ditunno JF, Young WS, Donovan WH, et al (eds): American Spinal Injury Association: Standards for Neurological and Functional Classification of Spinal Cord Injury, rev ed. Chicago, American Spinal Injury Association, 1992.

8. Schneider RC: The syndrome of acute anterior cervical spinal cord injury. J Neurosurg 12:95, 1995.

9. Bosch A, Stauffer ES, Nickel VL: Incomplete traumatic quadriplegia: A ten year review. JAMA 216:473, 1971.

10. Schneider RC, Cherry G. Pantek H: The syndrome of acute central cervical spinal cord injury with special reference to the mechanisms involved in hyperextension injuries of the cervical spine. J Neurosurg 11:546, 1954.

11. Denis F: Spinal instability as defined by the three-column spine concept in acute spinal trauma. Clin Orthop Rel Res 189:65, 1984.

12. Scalea T, Goldstein A, Phillips T, et al: An analysis of 161 falls from a height: The "jumper syndrome". J Trauma 26:706, 1986.

13. Tall RL, De Valut W: Spinal injury in sport: Epidemiologic considerations. Clinics in Sports Medicine. 12:441, 1993.

14. Kihtir T, Ivatury RR, Simon R, et al: Management of transperitoneal gunshot wounds of the spine. J Trauma 31:1579, 1991.

15. American College of Surgeons: The Advanced Trauma Life Support Course. Chicago, Illinois 1997.

16. Soderstrom C, McArdle DQ, Ducker TB, Militello PR: The diagnosis of intra-abdominal injury in patients with cervical cord trauma. J Trauma 23:1061-1065.

17. Zipnick R, Scalea TM, Trooskin SZ, et al: Hemodynamic responses to penetrating spinal cord injuries. J Trauma 35:578-583, 1993.

18. Bachulis BL, Long WB, Hynes GD, et al: Clinical indications for cervical spine radiographs in the traumatized patient. Am J Surg 153:473-477, 1987.

19. Roberge RJ, Wears RC, Kelly M, et al: Selective approach of cervical spine radiography in alert victims of blunt trauma: A prospective study. J Trauma 28:784-788, 1988.

20. Bayless P, Ray VG: Incidence of cervical spine injuries in association with blunt head trauma. Am J Emer Med 7:139-142, 1989.

21. Jacobs LM, Schwartz R: Prospective analysis of acute cervical spine injury: A methodology to predict injury. Ann Emerg Med 15:44, 1986.

22. Chiles BW III, Cooper PR: Acute spinal injury. Current concepts. New Engl J Med 334:514-520, 1996.

23. MacDonald RL, Schwartz ML, Mirich D, et al: Diagnosis of cervical spine injury in motor vehicle crash victims: How many x-rays are enough? J Trauma 30:392-397, 1990.

24. Panjabi MM, Tech D, White AA: Basic biomechanics of the spine. Neurosurg 7:76, 1980.

25. Hall ED: The neuroprotective pharmacology of methylprednisolone. J Neurosurg 76:13, 1992.

26. Waters RL, Adkins RH: The effects of removal of bullet fragments retained in the spinal canal. A collaborative study by the National Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems. Spine. 16:934, 1991.

27. Benzel EC (ed.): Biomechanics of Spine Stabilization, ed 1, New York, McGraw-Hill, pp. 247-262, 1995.

28. Hadley MN, Zabramski JM, Browner CM: Pediatric spinal trauma: Review of 122 cases of spinal cord and vertebral column injuries. J Neurosurg 68:18, 1988.

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