Chapter References

1. Bernheim HA, Block LH, Atkins E: Fever: Pathogenesis, pathophysiology, and purpose. Ann Intern Med 91:261, 1979

2. Kluger MJ: Fever revisited. Pediatrics 90:846, 1992.

3. Kluger MJ: The evolution and adaptive value of fever. Am Sci 66:38, 1978.

4. Berkowitz C, Orr D, Spencer M, et al: Variability in the management of febrile infants. J Emerg Med 3:345, 1985.

5. Petersen-Smith A, Barber N, Coody D, et al: Comparison of aural infrared with traditional rectal temperatures in children from birth to age three years. J Pediatr 125:83, 1994.

6. Baraff LJ, Bass JW, Fleisher GR, et al: Practice guidelines for the management of infants and children 0 to 36 months of age with fever without source. Ann Emerg Med 22:1198, 1993.

7. McCarthy PL, Jekel JF, Dolan TF: Temperature less than or equal to 40°C in children less than 24 months of age: A prospective study. Pediatrics 59:663, 1977.

8. McCarthy PL, Dolan TF: Hyperpyrexia in children. Am J Dis Child 130:849, 1976.

9. Alpert G, Hibbert E, Fleisher GR: Case-control study of hyperpyrexia in children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 9:161, 1990.

10. Bonadio WA, Gronske L, Smith DS: Systemic bacterial infections in children with fever greater than 41°C. Pediatr Infect Dis J 8:120, 1989.

11. Marcinak JF: Evaluation of children with fever 3104°F in an emergency department. Pediatr Emerg Care 4:92, 1988.

12. Roberts KB: Fever in the first eight weeks of life. Johns Hopkins Med J 141:9, 1977.

13. McCarthy PL, Dolan TF: The serious implications of high fever in infants during their first three months. Clin Pediati 15:794, 1976.

14. Krober MS, Bass JW, Powell JM, et al: Bacterial and viral pathogens causing fever in infants less than 3 months old. Am J Dis Child 139:889, 1985.

15. Caspe WB, Chamudes O, Louie B: The evaluation and treatment of the febrile infant. Pediatr Infect Dis J 2:131, 1983.

16. Berkowitz CD, Uchiyama N, Tully SB, et al: Fever in infants less than two months of age: Spectrum of disease and predictors of outcome. Pediatr Emerg Care 1:128, 1985.

17. Dagan R, Powell KR, Hall CD, et al: Identification of infants unlikely to have serious bacterial infection although hospitalized for suspected sepsis. J Pediatr 107:855, 1985.

18. Dagan R, Sofer S, Phillip M, Shachak E: Ambulatory care of febrile infants younger than 2 months of age classified as being at low risk for having bacterial infections. J Pediatr 112:355, 1987.

19. Ginsburg CM, McCracken GH: Urinary tract infections in young infants. Pediatrics 69:409, 1982.

20. Hoberman A, Wald ER: Urinary tract infections in young febrile children. Pediatr Infect Dis J 16:11, 1997.

21. Lieu TA, Baskin MN, Schwartz S, Fleisher GR: Clinical and cost-effectiveness of outpatient strategies for management of febrile infants. Pediatrics 89:1135, 1992.

22. Baskin MN, O'Rourke EJ, Fleisher GR: Outpatient treatment of febrile infants 28 to 89 days of age with intramuscular administration of ceftriaxone. J Pediatr 120:22, 1992.

23. Baskin MN, O'Rourke EJ, Fleisher GR: Management of febrile infants 15 to 28 days of age with parenteral ceftriaxone and 24 hours of in-patient observation. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 148:49, 1994.

24. McGowan JE, Bratton L, Klein JO, et al: Bacteremia in febrile children seen in a walk-in pediatric clinic. N Engl J Med 288:1309, 1973.

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27. Bluestone CD: Modern management of otitis media. Pediatr Clin North Am 36:1371, 1989.

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29. Mandl KD, Stack AM, Fleisher GR: Incidence of bacteremia in infants and children with fever and petechiae. J Pediatr 131:398, 1997.

30. Barron MA, Fink HD: Bacteremia in private practice. Pediatrics 66:171, 1980.

31. Dershewitz RA, Wigder HN, Wigder CM, Nadelman DH: A comparative study of the prevalence, outcome, and prediction of bacteremia in children. J Pediatr 103:352, 1983.

32. Carroll WL, Farrell MK, Singer JI, et al: Treatment of occult bacteremia: A prospective randomized clinical trial. Pediatrics 72:608, 1983.

33. Jaffe DM, Tanz RR, Davis AT, et al: Antibiotic administration to treat possible occult bacteremia in febrile children. N Engl J Med 317:1175, 1987.

34. Bradley JS, Scheld WN: The challenges of penicillin-resistant pneumococcal infection. Clin Infect Dis 24:S213, 1997.

35. Fleisher GR, Rosenberg N, Vinci R, et al: Intramuscular versus oral antibiotic therapy for the prevention of meningitis and other bacterial sequelae in young febrile children at risk for occult bacteremia. J Pediatr 124:504, 1994.

36. Steele RW, Tanaka PT, Lara RP, Bass JW: Evaluation of sponging and of oral antipyretic therapy to reduce fever. J Pediatr 77:824, 1970.

37. Steele RW, Young FH, Bass JW, Shirkey HC: Oral antipyretic therapy: Evaluation of aspirin-acetaminophen combination. Am J Dis Child 123:204, 1972.

38. Wilson JT, Brown RD, Kearns GL, et al: Single-dose, placebo-controlled comparative study of ibuprofen and acetaminophen antipyresis in children. J Pediatr 119:803, 1991.

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