Chemical Restraints

At times a patient may be too violent, even while physically restrained, for an adequate evaluation to be performed. The use of pharmacologic agents can be a safe and effective means of controlling such patients, provided the drugs are used appropriately and that physicians are aware of their adverse affects ( Tab!eii2,93-3). The term rapid tranquilization has been used to describe delivery of medications in a titrated fashion to gain control of patients with psychiatric illness, substance abuse, dementia, or withdrawal symptoms.9 Standard doses of neuroleptic agents or benzodiazepines are given at 30- to 60-min intervals until the desired effect is reached. In general, doses for elderly patients should be half of those used on younger patients.

Anxiety and Panic Attacks

Anxiety and Panic Attacks

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