Clinical Features

Clinical findings in a child with pneumonia are highly variable and are dependent on the specific respiratory pathogen, age, the severity of the disease, and any underlying illnesses. Tachypnea is the most frequent sign of pneumonia in children and may be an otherwise isolated finding. The best physical examination finding for ruling out pneumonia in an infant or child is the absence of tachypnea. 25 However, tachypnea is a nonspecific symptom and may occur secondary to fever, anxiety, metabolic disease, cardiac disease, or other respiratory problems. Fever can increase an infant's respiratory rate by 10 breaths per minute for each degree centigrade of elevation.26 Respiratory rates should be counted over 1 min. Several studies have shown that rates counted over less time tend to overestimate the rate. Generally accepted standards for tachypnea in an infant or child are shown in Table 119-2..™'

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

Free Yourself from Panic Attacks

With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.

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