Clinical Features

Clinical findings in a child with pneumonia are highly variable and are dependent on the specific respiratory pathogen, age, the severity of the disease, and any underlying illnesses. Tachypnea is the most frequent sign of pneumonia in children and may be an otherwise isolated finding. The best physical examination finding for ruling out pneumonia in an infant or child is the absence of tachypnea. 25 However, tachypnea is a nonspecific symptom and may occur secondary to fever, anxiety, metabolic disease, cardiac disease, or other respiratory problems. Fever can increase an infant's respiratory rate by 10 breaths per minute for each degree centigrade of elevation.26 Respiratory rates should be counted over 1 min. Several studies have shown that rates counted over less time tend to overestimate the rate. Generally accepted standards for tachypnea in an infant or child are shown in Table 119-2..™'

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Do Not Panic

Do Not Panic

This guide Don't Panic has tips and additional information on what you should do when you are experiencing an anxiety or panic attack. With so much going on in the world today with taking care of your family, working full time, dealing with office politics and other things, you could experience a serious meltdown. All of these things could at one point cause you to stress out and snap.

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