Clinical Features

Clinical findings in a child with pneumonia are highly variable and are dependent on the specific respiratory pathogen, age, the severity of the disease, and any underlying illnesses. Tachypnea is the most frequent sign of pneumonia in children and may be an otherwise isolated finding. The best physical examination finding for ruling out pneumonia in an infant or child is the absence of tachypnea. 25 However, tachypnea is a nonspecific symptom and may occur secondary to fever, anxiety, metabolic disease, cardiac disease, or other respiratory problems. Fever can increase an infant's respiratory rate by 10 breaths per minute for each degree centigrade of elevation.26 Respiratory rates should be counted over 1 min. Several studies have shown that rates counted over less time tend to overestimate the rate. Generally accepted standards for tachypnea in an infant or child are shown in Table 119-2..™'

Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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