Common Neonatal Problems

M. Yousuf Hasan Niranjan Kissoon

Normal .Vegetative Functions Feeding,, Patterns

WeightGain

BreathinflPatterns

Sleeping,nPiattiern,s

Reasons,Eor,ImergencY,,Depa^rtment,Visits Crying,,, Irritabilityiand,, Lethargy IntestinalColjc Abuse ,andMJrauma Infections Surgical „Lesions Improper ,Feedin,g,,,Pra,c,tice,s

Gastrointestinal Tract,, Symptoms

Feeding, .Di.ffic.uiti.es

Regurgitation

Vomiting

Abdominal,,Distention

Constipation

Cardiorespiratory.,,Sym.ptoms

Rapid, Breathing

Pneumonia

Bronchiolitis

!liness„!nyolying ,Othe,r,,,Q,rg,a,,n »Systems Congenital,, Diseases

Respiratory,,Disease

HearLDisease

Neuromuscular, Disease Couflh,,,and,,Nasaln, Congestion Noisy,,Breathing,, and, „Stridor Apnea „and.Eeriodlc „Breathing Cyanosis, ,and„Biue„,Spel|s Jaundice

Eye„Discharge,,,, Re,d,n.e.s.s.,,,,an.d,, „Conjunctivitis

Diape,r„Bashn and „Oral, „Thrush Fever and Sepsis

Apparent, „Life-Threatening, Events Suddeninfanl Death, „Syndrome Chapter, References

The assessment of neonates in the emergency department is more difficult than that of older children and adults. Symptoms are usually vague and nonspecific. Signs are usually subtle and, even when recognized, may not be helpful in pinpointing a diagnosis. For example, respiratory distress may be due to primary respiratory or cardiac disease, generalized sepsis, abdominal pathology, or metabolic derangements. Examination of neonates is time-consuming and requires special skills in the approach to the infant as well as the anxious parent.

The prerequisites for the proper evaluation of neonates are a great deal of patience and an appreciation of the marked variations in normal vegetative functions. Many visits are initiated because of parental concerns related to feeding patterns; weight gain; stool frequency, color, and consistency; and breathing patterns. Physicians involved in the care of neonates in the emergency department should therefore be knowledgeable about patterns of normal vegetative functions in the neonatal population.

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