PID is associated with a number of serious clinical sequelae. Tubo-ovarian abscess is reported in up to one-third of women hospitalized for PID. 910 Infection and inflammation can lead to scarring and adhesions within tubal lumens. The rate of potentially fatal ectopic pregnancy is 12 to 15 percent higher in women who have had PID. TFI is increased 12 to 50 percent in women with a past diagnosis of PID, and the incidence of TFI increases with the number and severity of past PID episodes. Asymptomatic or "silent" PID appears to be associated with TFI, as well: 50 percent of women with TFI have no history of PID but do have scarring of the fallopian tubes and exhibit antibodies to N. gonorrhoeae and/or C. trachomatis.11 Chronic pelvic pain and/or dyspareunia has been reported in 18 percent of women with past histories of PID.12
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