Contrast Studies

John Eng lodinated ..Intravascular Contrast, Agents Mechanism, ..ofActiOn

Types., of.A.gents

Types., of.Contrast.nReactions

RiskAssessment ..a.n,d...Eaiient .Preparation History .ofAllergy

Card,iac..D,isease

M.etfo^rm,inM .Therapy

Anxiety

OtherDiseases

Premedication

Serum.MCreatinine

Indications .foLl.n.traya.scu|ar .Contrast, Agents VasculaLComputedTomograBhy lntraylenou,s.Urolgra,phy,., and. .Urolithiasis

Abdominal Trauma Acute.. Abdomen

Crania! .Computed,. Tomography Ske,l.,et,a,l..Zrau,m,a lodinated Gastrointestinal Contrast Agents

Diagnosis. and ..Treatment. ofContrast.. Reactions

Chapter References lodinated intravascular contrast agents significantly improve the visualization of structures in many radiologic examinations, and millions of doses are administered each year in the United States for this purpose. As with any pharmaceutical product, appropriate use of intravascular contrast agents requires knowledge of the risks and benefits of their use. Unlike most drugs, however, contrast agents provide the potential benefit, not of a therapeutic effect, but of an improvement in diagnostic information.

This chapter begins with an introduction to the pharmaceutical properties of iodinated intravascular contrast agents, followed by clinical points to consider prior to their administration. While it is always advisable to discuss the need for iodinated contrast with a radiologist on a case-by-case basis, some general indications are offered. lodinated contrast for visualization of the gastrointestinal tract is also briefly discussed. Finally, the diagnosis and treatment of contrast reactions are outlined. Throughout this chapter, contrast agent refers to iodinated intravascular contrast material unless otherwise indicated.

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