Cellulitis as previously defined may involve the tissues anterior to the orbital septum (periorbital cellulitis) or within the orbit (orbital cellulitis). Etiology

S. aureus, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae are the principal etiologic agents. Orbital infections are most often caused by S. aureus. Epidemiology

Children under the age of 3 years are more likely to become bacteremic than those who are older; thus, they experience the highest incidence of periorbital disease.

Orbital cellulitis may occur at any age. Pathophysiology

Organisms reach the periorbital area either hematogenously or by direct extension from the ethmoid sinus. In the case of orbital disease, contiguous spread is most common.

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