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INFECTIONS Since HIV-1 was identified in the U.S. blood supply in the mid-1980s, several screening methods have been instituted to ensure the safety of the blood products in current use. The majority of blood products available in the United States today are collected from volunteer donors who reliably provide a safer product than that obtained from paid donors. There are two levels of screening of the donors and blood: (1) donor prescreening by a questionnaire that excludes persons with a high risk of viral exposure and (2) serologic testing of the donor blood. The tests typically performed on donor blood are outlined in T.ab.!e...2i5-5. Some component products, factor replacement products in particular, undergo further treatment to ensure viral inactivation. The risks of transmission of various infections by transfused blood products are listed in Table 2.1.5-6.. These risks are averages; the actual risk may be higher or lower depending on the incidence of infection in the area the blood is collected. Rarely, blood products become contaminated with bacteria during preparation or bacterial infection can come from an infected donor. This should be considered when a patient develops fever during or shortly after the transfusion of blood products.

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