Diagnosis

The diagnosis of IDDM in the pediatric population is usually straightforward. While the triad of polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia is the classic presentation, other symptoms include failure to gain weight, weight loss, enuresis, anorexia, and changes in vision, behavior, and school performance. Hyperglycemia in association with glucosuria with or without ketonuria establishes the diagnosis.5 In rare instances, hyperglycemia in children can be found in association with hyperthyroidism, lead intoxication, Cushing disease, brain tumors, pheochromocytoma, and therapy with corticosteroids.1

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