A twelve-lead electrocardiogram and continuous rhythm monitoring are essential in evaluation and ongoing assessment. Laboratory testing is directed at supportive monitoring of renal function, glucose level, oxygenation, and acid-base status. Specific drug levels may be determined to confirm an exposure, but the results will not alter acute management, since symptoms do not necessarily correlate with levels and levels are not rapidly available. Radiographs to detect b-blocker pills in the gastrointestinal tract are not useful, since these drugs are not radiopaque.7
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