Encephalitis Arboviral

Arboviral encephalitis is characterized by a febrile illness associated with any of the following neurologic signs and symptoms: headache, confusion, altered sensorium, nausea and vomiting, meningismus, cranial nerve palsy, paresis or paralysis, sensory deficit, altered reflexes, seizures, abnormal movements, or coma. The illness may be of varying severity and cannot be distinguished clinically from other central nervous system infections.

The diagnosis is made based on laboratory detection of (1) a fourfold or greater rise in serum antibody titer, (2) isolation of virus or finding viral antigen or genomic sequences in tissue, blood, cerebral spinal fluid, or other bodily fluids, or (3) IgM anitbody detected on enzyme immunoassay from serum or cerebral spinal fluid.

Eastern equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, California serogroup encephalitis, or St. Louis encephalitis are reportable to the CDC. ESCHERICHIA COLI O157:H7

A diarrheal disease of variable severity, E. coli O157:H7 has gained national prominence through several food-borne outbreaks. The diarrhea of this disease is often bloody and associated with abdominal cramping. It may be complicated by hemolytic-uremic syndrome or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. It also may be asymptomatic.

In the laboratory, isolation of the bacteria in a clinical specimen, or isolation of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O157:NM from a clinical specimen (strains of O157:H7 that have lost the flagellar H antigen become nonmotile and are called NM) is diagnostic.

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