Extended Release Agents

Carbatrol and Tegretol XR are extended-release forms of carbamazepine that permit bid or 12-h dosing. Fosphenytoin

Fosphenytoin (Cerebyx) is a prodrug of phenytoin that contains a disodium phosphate ester that is cleaved during hydrolysis, yielding a molecule of phenytoin. Phosphatases are ubiquitous and present in newborns, so fosphenytoin can be used at any age. It is water soluble and can be given IV and intramuscularly (IM)

without the side effect of infusion-related complications attributed to phenytoin extravasation. A 1 mg phenytoin equivalent (PE) is the therapeutic equivalent of 1 mg of phenytoin. Fosphenytoin can be infused at 3 mg PE/kg/min with therapeutic free phenytoin levels achieved by 7 to 8 min following infusion and 30 min following IM use. Rapid infusion in alert patients may produce perineal pruritis.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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