Fetal Distress

Fetal distress may occur during active labor, and care must be taken to evaluate the fetal status as often as possible. Indicators of fetal distress include decelerations in fetal heart rate. This is defined as a persistent drop in fetal heart rate during contractions persisting more than 30 s after a contraction. While many EDs do not have fetal monitoring devices, Doppler heart tones should be measured after each contraction to detect the presence of decelerations. Episodic bradycardia persisting for more than 5 min is an indication for immediate cesarean section.

Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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