Ft HI Mm itm Vtff M par pin pan pn jisstfr

pain Mr

FIG. 32-1. Adjective rating scale.

A numerical rating scale (NRS) can be presented as a verbal or graphic scale to describe pain intensity ( Fig 32-2). The patient is asked to self-report pain on a scale of zero to ten (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain) and mark it off graphically, self-report verbally, or—where language or speech is difficult—indicate the numerical value with upheld fingers. While not as precise as the visual analogue scale (VAS), (see below), the NRS requires no visual or manual skill and is easy to use. 1

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