Reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus causes a wide array of symptoms and long-term effects. It affects up to 25 percent of the adult population, possibly with even higher rates in elderly populations.14 Classically, a weak LES has been the mechanism held responsible for reflux, and this is seen in some patients. However, it is now accepted that transient relaxation of the LES complex (with normal tone in between periods of relaxation) is a primary mechanism causing reflux. Patients with moderate to severe reflux also often have concomitant hiatal hernia. 215 Prolonged gastric emptying, agents that decrease LES, pressure, and impaired esophageal motility predispose to reflux. T§b,!§.,Zl-2 highlights some common contributors.
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Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the medical term for what we know as acid reflux. Acid reflux occurs when the stomach releases its liquid back into the esophagus, causing inflammation and damage to the esophageal lining. The regurgitated acid most often consists of a few compoundsbr acid, bile, and pepsin.