Gastrointestinal Hepatic System

Perhaps the greatest morbidity from NSAID use is bleeding from the GI tract. At therapeutic doses, NSAIDs inhibition of cytoprotective gastric prostaglandins (PGI 2 and PGE2) increases the risk of gastric erosion, gastritis, and GI bleeding. There is a two- to fivefold increased risk of perforation or hemorrhage in NSAID users over the non-NSAID-using population. Data suggest that the risk for life-threatening bleeding is between 1.3 and 4 percent per year among NSAID users. It is estimated that NSAID-related GI bleeding contributes to 7500 deaths and 75,000 hospitalizations annually in the United States. The prostaglandin analogue misoprostol is effective at preventing NSAID-related gastric erosions at doses of 200 pg qid. Recently, the proton-pump inhibitor omeprazole has been shown to be effective at treating NSAID-related ulcers, but its role in prophylactic therapy is less clear. 7

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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