Jason B. Hack Robert S. Hoffman
Emergency Department Management of Poisoned Patients ABCs
Decontamination Gross. .Decontamination
Gastric ..Emptying Emesis
Adsorption. of.the..Io.xi,n..ln., theGut. Lumen Activated .Charcoa!
Irrigation of.. the.B.owel Lumen Whole .Bowel.. Irrigation
Enhanced. . Elimination
Hemodialysis Initia!...Interyentions Chapter. References
The perception that most people have of a poisonous substance is consistent with common definitions. Mofenson and colleagues established guidelines that must be fulfilled for a substance, and its subsequent exposure, to be categorized as nontoxic ( Table 151.il).1,2 A poisoning is an event where a living organism is exposed to a chemical that adversely affects the functioning of that organism. The exposure to the toxin may be occupational, environmental, recreational, or medicinal. A poisoning may result from varied portals of entry, including inhalation, insufflation, ingestion, cutaneous and mucous membrane exposure, and injection. Toxic exposures commonly occur, for example, when substances are tasted or swallowed. Toxins may be in the form of gas or vapors or in a suspension such as dust. Caustics, vesicants, or irritants may affect the skin. A toxin may enter the body transdermally and affect internal structures. Parenteral exposure is also common through intravenous or subcutaneous injection of medications or drugs of abuse.
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The term vaginitis is one that is applied to any inflammation or infection of the vagina, and there are many different conditions that are categorized together under this ‘broad’ heading, including bacterial vaginosis, trichomoniasis and non-infectious vaginitis.