The agents discussed in this chapter share certain generalities useful in guiding management ( Table 159-3). Most overdoses of nonbenzodiazepine sedative-hypnotics are taken orally and often involve coingestants. Therefore, a diligent search for other treatable substances (e.g., acetaminophen and salicylates) is mandatory. Coingestants also may obscure expected toxidrome features or potentiate symptoms, complicating management. All the agents discussed, with the possible exceptions of buspirone, zolpidem, and GHB, cause physical dependence and tolerance in chronic use. Thus hospitalized patients who have been treated for acute toxicity subsequently may develop life-threatening abstinence states that are best anticipated from the ED.
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With all the stresses and strains of modern living, panic attacks are become a common problem for many people. Panic attacks occur when the pressure we are living under starts to creep up and overwhelm us. Often it's a result of running on the treadmill of life and forgetting to watch the signs and symptoms of the effects of excessive stress on our bodies. Thankfully panic attacks are very treatable. Often it is just a matter of learning to recognize the symptoms and learn simple but effective techniques that help you release yourself from the crippling effects a panic attack can bring.