Hypercapnia is exclusively due to alveolar hypoventilation and is arbitrarily defined as a Pa co2 greater than 45 mmHg. Alveolar hypoventilation can be due to a variety of disorders, including rapid shallow breathing, small tidal volumes, underventilation of the lung, or reduced respiratory drive; it is never due to increased CO 2 production (Table,„i58-2).

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Your Heart and Nutrition

Your Heart and Nutrition

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