Hypernatremia

Hypernatremia is strictly defined as serum [Na+] greater than 150 meq/L. The most frequent cause of hypernatremia is a decrease in TBW secondary to either reduced intake or excessive loss. The main defense against hypernatremia is likely thirst. A 2 percent increase in plasma osmolality should stimulate thirst and thereby increase free water intake. The problem arises when patients, such as those in a coma or those who are bedridden, are unable to obtain adequate fluid. All hypernatremic states are hyperosmolar (TaMe,...23.:5).

TABLE 23-5 Etiologic Classification of Hypernatremia

Clinical manifestations are much more severe with acute rapidly developing hypernatremia than with chronic hypernatremia. In the elderly and in infants (two groups at great risk), the morbidity and mortality rates are high when [Na+] is greater than 160 meq/L. Symptoms usually occur when plasma osmolality exceeds 350 mosm/kg of water. Neurologic dysfunction predominates (Table.23-6).

How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

How To Get Rid Of Bed Bugs

If you seriously want know how to get rid of bed bugs, then this may be the most important letter you'll ever read!... Discover How To Solve Your Dilemma In What You Thought To Be Your Dream Vacation And Easily Taking The First Step To Conquer The Bed Bugs Trauma You May Have At This Moment! It doesn't matter, if you have never have any ideas on how to getting rid of bed bugs and how to banish it quickly in the shortest time possible, then this golden guides will show you everything steps you need to take against bed bugs banishing!

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment