Addition or removal of hydrogen ion causes a shift in the equilibrium, resulting in a reduction or increase in [H +], respectively. The effectiveness of a buffer system is optimal when the concentrations of its base and conjugate acid are equal; that is, the system is equally able to buffer excess protons or to release them. This point is the dissociation constant, or KA.

Eguation..(1] can now be written quantitatively to describe the hydrogen ion concentration, as shown in EqL.?.

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