Knee Injuries

Mark T. Steele

Examination

Radioqraph.ic.Eyaluation

Fractures

Fractures..ofl thePatella Fra.ctures.of FemoraLCondyles

Fractures..ofi .th.e..T.i.bi..a.!..S.p.i.n.es.i .a.n.d..Iub.e.io.s,i.$.y

Fractures of the Tibial Plateaus

Ligamentous and ..Meniscal.. Injuries .M.e.n.iscal. Injuries

Knee. .Dislocation

Patella Dislocation Quadriceps/Pa$e!!a.r.Tendon...Ru.Rture Osteochondritis,. Dissecans

Osteonecrosis Patellar .Tendln.it.is

Chondromalacia Patellae

Post . . Arthroscopy . . Presentations Penetrating ..Knee.. Injury/Joint! Foreign,. .Bodies

Knee Injuries in Children

Separation.. of ..Di.s$a.!...Femor3! .Epiphysis Separation . . of . Proximal . . Tibial . . Epiphysis Injuries ..to,.. theTibialTubercle Fracture oí.lt,h,e.,!nt.e.rc,o.nd,y!a.r . .Eminence. .of . the. . Tibia Osteochond.ral.Fractures Chapter. References

Injuries to the knee are common in our exercise and sports-oriented society. Because the knee is essential for ambulation, one must be familiar with the examination of the normal and abnormal knee to be able to recognize, treat, and appropriately refer specific injuries. This chapter deals with examination of the knee and with recognition of fractures and dislocations of the patella; fractures of femoral condyles; fractures of the tibial spines, tuberosity, and plateaus; ligamentous and meniscal injuries of the knee joint; knee dislocation; quadriceps and patellar tendon ruptures; patellar tendinitis and chondromalacia patellae; penetrating injuries and foreign bodies; total knee replacement and postarthroscopy problems; and osteochondritis dissecans.

An accurate diagnosis of the injured knee is required before proper treatment can be instituted. The first examination is usually the easiest to perform and may be the most valid because the patient does not anticipate pain and therefore does not guard, and involuntary muscular spasm, inflammation and effusion causing further limitation of the examination may not yet have occurred.

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