Mechanical Ventilation

Most neonates are ventilated with time-cycled, pressure-limited ventilators using intermittent mandatory ventilation. As with volume ventilation, the clinician must determine the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) and ventilator rate. In contrast to volume ventilation, the tidal volume is not set, and in fact is not known with most infant ventilators. The volume of each breath is determined by setting a peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), a positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and an inspiratory time (Ti) with suggested initial ventilator settings for infants that vary according to the severity of lung disease ( T§ble 4.:2,).

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