In addition to the various dopamine-related side effects just described (extrapyramidal disorders, tardive dyskinesia, and NMS), the antipsychotics may cause a variety of other untoward effects, some of which are highlighted here. All antipsychotics may cause sedation and impair mental capacity to some degree; 24 patients should be cautioned regarding activities requiring mental alertness, such as driving and operating heavy machinery. Photosensitivity may occur with the typical antipsychotics, especially the phenothiazines; it is not a characteristic of the atypical agents, with the exception of risperidone. To varying degrees, all may lower the seizure threshold.24 Both typical and atypical agents are pregnancy category C with the exception of clozapine, which is category B; none of these agents are recommended in breast-feeding women.24 Clozapine therapy carries the risk of agranulocytosis and is reserved for use in severely ill schizophrenics who have failed conventional treatment regimens; weekly monitoring of the leukocyte count is indicated. i2,4,,!1
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