Neuromuscular Disease

Any form of muscle weakness may be associated with shallow breathing and an increase in respiratory rate as a compensatory mechanism. Cough and Nasal Congestion

Cough may be a prominent feature of most of the primary respiratory conditions listed in T§ble..,..1.1..2.-4. It may also be the initial presentation of a variety of congenital anomalies, including cleft palate, laryngotracheomalacia, laryngotracheal cleft, tracheal webs, tracheoesophageal fistula, tracheal hemangiomas, and vascular rings. Although congenital malformation resulting in cough and nasal congestion is more likely to occur in neonates, in most instances, cough is due to a viral upper respiratory infection and may be associated with sneezing and nasal congestion. It may also be a prominent feature of bronchiolitis and chlamydial and pertussis infections. Treatment of the underlying condition is required. Cough suppressants should be used with extreme caution in neonates. Nasal congestion is best treated with instillation of saline drops when necessary.32

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