Nonpharmacologic Modalities

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Cognitive behavioral and physical techniques are useful nonpharmacological adjuncts to pediatric acute pain management. 5 Several simple, age- and development-specific interventions can significantly decrease a child's anxiety and later pain perception. Cognitive behavioral modalities include reassurance and explanation, relaxation, distraction, music, psychoprophylaxis, biofeedback, and guided imagery. Environmental alterations, such as dimmed lights, a quiet room, or stereo headphones may relieve anxiety. Distraction techniques such as story telling, singing, and games are effective. Guided imagery can be used with children as young as three or four years who have a rich fantasy world and can be encouraged to imagine their favorite place or activity. General strategies for nonpharmacological pain relief techniques are outlined in Table 13.0.-.3.. Table 130-.4., Table 13.0.-.5, Table 13.0.-.6., Table 1.3.0-7. and Table 130-8 suggest strategies that are best suited for infants, toddlers, preschoolers, school-age children, and adolescents. Physical techniques include kinesthetic or tactile stimulation, heat and cold applications and massage as well as the more complex modalities of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator (TENS), acupuncture, acupressure and electro-acupressure.

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TABLE 13G-3 Nonpharmacological Pain Relief Techniques for Children

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TABLE 130-4 Highlights of Child Development and Nonpharmacologic Pain Management Specifics: The Infant (0 to 12 Months)

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Anxiety and Depression 101

Anxiety and Depression 101

Everything you ever wanted to know about. We have been discussing depression and anxiety and how different information that is out on the market only seems to target one particular cure for these two common conditions that seem to walk hand in hand.

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