Nontraumatic Cardiac Tamponade

PATHOPHYSIOLOGY An increase in the amount of fluid within the pericardial sac results in an increase in intrapericardial pressure. The normal fibrocollagenous parietal pericardium has elastic properties and stretches to accommodate increases in intrapericardial fluid. The initial portion of the pericardial volume-pressure curve is flat: relatively large increases in volume result in comparatively small changes in intrapericardial pressure. The curve becomes steeper as the parietal pericardium reaches the limits of its distensibility. If fluid continues to accumulate, intrapericardial pressure rises to a level greater than that of the normal filling pressures of the right heart chambers. When this occurs, ventricular filling is restricted and results in cardiac tamponade. The point at which this occurs is determined by the slope of the pericardial volume-pressure curve, which is dependent on the rate of fluid accumulation, pericardial compliance (a thickened parietal pericardium is less distensible), and intravascular volume (hypovolemia lowers ventricular filling pressure). 18 Common causes of cardiac tamponade in nontrauma patients are listed in Table 51-8.?-1-,2. and 23

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