Normal Pregnancy

Christina E. Hantsch Donna L. Seger

Terminology Physiology

Cardiovascular System RespiratorySys.tem

GasirointeMinaLSystem UrinarySystem Hematopoietic, ..System

Endocrine. .System




Diagnosis Pelvic.. Ultrasonography Specific. .Issues. .inPregnancy AbdominalDiscomfort




Preventive..Medicine and..Counseling Nutrition . . and . Nutriltionai,.. Supplementation




Travel Exercise

Disposition Acknowledgment Chapter.. References

Regardless of the chief complaint, the possibility of pregnancy must be considered in every woman of reproductive age who presents to the emergency department. Pregnancy may be the cause of a patient's symptoms and signs, or pregnancy may alter the diagnosis and management of other conditions. History and physical examination alone are not adequate in excluding pregnancy, and other diagnostic information is frequently required. In one study, over 7 percent of women, who stated that there was no chance they were pregnant and reported an on-time and normal last menstrual period, were pregnant.1 The use of oral contraceptives or contraceptive implants does not guarantee pregnancy prevention. Although the failure rate is less than 1 per 100 with compliant use of oral contraceptives, nearly 30 percent of women who rely on oral contraceptives alone to prevent pregnancy are not consistently compliant. 2 Among women with levonorgestrel implants, the annual pregnancy rate is 0.8 per 100 during the first 5 years of therapy. The failure rate of implants further increases with time. 3

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