Amrinone also has been reported to be successful in treating refractory CCB overdose. Amrinone inhibits the action of the cardiac phosphodiesterase (known as the peak III PDE), which leads to an elevation in cytosolic cAMP. Amrinone's main benefit is its positive inotropic action. Amrinone requires a loading bolus of 750 pg/kg, followed by a constant infusion at 1 to 20 pg/kg/h.
Atropine also is used frequently for treating CCB overdose.16 Although atropine probably has no adverse effects in this setting, it seldom produces any benefit as a sole treatment.
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