Self-report tools are the mainstay of pain assessment. These tools should be reliable, valid, and easy for the patient and health care provider to use in the ED environment. The ideal tool should be applicable to any individual regardless of psychological, emotional, cultural, cognitive, or developmental status.
The adjective rating scale (ARS) is a simple, descriptive pain-intensity scale presented graphically or verbally as a linear list of pain descriptors ( Fig 32-1). A 10-cm baseline is recommended.1
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This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.