Pain Assessment Tools

Self-report tools are the mainstay of pain assessment. These tools should be reliable, valid, and easy for the patient and health care provider to use in the ED environment. The ideal tool should be applicable to any individual regardless of psychological, emotional, cultural, cognitive, or developmental status.

The adjective rating scale (ARS) is a simple, descriptive pain-intensity scale presented graphically or verbally as a linear list of pain descriptors ( Fig 32-1). A 10-cm baseline is recommended.1

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

Peripheral Neuropathy Natural Treatment Options

This guide will help millions of people understand this condition so that they can take control of their lives and make informed decisions. The ebook covers information on a vast number of different types of neuropathy. In addition, it will be a useful resource for their families, caregivers, and health care providers.

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