Pathophysiology

Glauser MP, Heumann D, Baumgartner JD, Cohen J: Pathogenesis and potential strategies for prevention and treatment of septic shock: An update. Clin Infect Dis 18(supp 2):S205, 1994. Ognibene FP: Pathogenesis and innovative treatment of septic shock. Adv Intern Med 42:313, 1997. Parrillo JE: Pathogenetic mechanisms of septic shock. N Engl J Med 328:1471, 1993.

Saez-Llorens X, McCracken GH Jr: Sepsis syndrome and septic shock in pediatrics: Current concepts of terminology, pathophysiology, and management. J Pediatr 123:497, 1993. Clinical Features

Bock HA: Pathophysiology of acute renal failure in septic shock: From prerenal to renal failure. Kidney Int 64(suppl):S15, 1998. Carleton SC: The cardiovascular effects of sepsis. Cardiol Clin 13:249, 1995.

Mammen EF: The haematological manifestations of sepsis. J Antimicrob Chemother 41(supp A):17, 1998. Parrillo JE: The cardiovascular pathophysiology of sepsis. Ann Rev Med 40:469, 1989.

Parrillo JE, Parker MM, Natanson C, et al: Septic shock in humans: Advances in the understanding of pathogenesis, cardiovascular dysfunction, and therapy. Ann Intern Med 113:227, 1990. Snell RJ, Parrillo JE: Cardiovascular dysfunction in septic shock. Chest 99:1000, 1991.

Singer M: Management of multiple organ failure: Guidelines but no hard-and-fast rules. J Antimicrob Chemother 41(supp A):103, 1998. Treatment

Abraham E, Wunderink R, Silverman H: Efficacy and safety of monoclonal antibody to human tumor necrosis factor-alpha in patients with sepsis syndrome. A randomized, controlled, double-blind, multicenter clinical trial. JAMA 273:934, 1995.

Cronin L, Cook DJ, Carlet J: Corticosteroid treatment for sepsis: A critical appraisal and meta-analysis of the literature. Crit Care Med 23:470, 1995.

Kuhl SJ, Rosen H: Nitric oxide and septic shock: From bench to bedside. West J Med 168:176, 1998.

Lefering R, Neugebauer EAM: Steroid controversy in sepsis and septic shock: A meta-analysis. Crit Care Med 23:1294, 1995.

Lynn WA, Cohen J: Adjunctive therapy for septic shock: A review of experimental approaches. Clin Infect Dis 20:143, 1995.

Task Force of the American College of Critical Care Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine: Practice parameters for hemodynamic support of sepsis in adult patients in sepsis. Crit Care Med 27(3):639-660, 1999.

Zeni F, Freeman B, Natanson C: Anti-inflammatory therapies to treat sepsis and septic shock: A reassessment. [editorial; comment] Crit Care Med 25:1095, 1997.

Ziegler EJ, Fisher CJ Jr, Sprung CL, et al: Treatment of gram-negative bacteremia and septic shock with HA-1A human monoclonal antibody against endotoxin. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. N Engl J Med 324:429, 1991.

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