Pathophysiology

In simplest terms, DKA represents the body's response to cellular starvation, brought on by relative insulin deficiency and counterregulatory or catabolic hormone excess (Fig 2.03.-1)5 Insulin is the only anabolic hormone and is responsible for the metabolism and storage of carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Counterregulatory hormones include glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone. This lack of insulin and excess counterregulatory hormones results in hyperglycemia (due to excess production and underutilization of glucose, the resultant osmotic diuresis and decreased glomerular filtration rate), 2 ketone formation, and an anion gap metabolic acidosis.

FIG. 203-1. Pathogenesis of DKA, secondary to relative insulin deficiency and counterregulatory hormone excess.

Diabetes 2

Diabetes 2

Diabetes is a disease that affects the way your body uses food. Normally, your body converts sugars, starches and other foods into a form of sugar called glucose. Your body uses glucose for fuel. The cells receive the glucose through the bloodstream. They then use insulin a hormone made by the pancreas to absorb the glucose, convert it into energy, and either use it or store it for later use. Learn more...

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