The pharmacologic management of acute pain includes systemic agents such as opioid and nonopioid analgesics and adjunct medications (anxiolytics and antiemetics) in addition to the nonsystemic local and regional agents (T§ble 32.:1). Agents such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) should be considered for mild pain, and systemic opioids and/or NSAIDs should be considered for moderate to severe pain. Local or regional neural blockade is a useful technique to minimize the use of narcotic agents (T§bJ§...3.2.-2).
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