Pneumothorax can occur as a complication of thoracic wall surgery, breast biopsy, laparoscopic abdominal surgery, abdominal paracentesis, nasogastric and feeding tube insertion, thoracic surgery, central venous catheter insertion, endoscopic procedures, shoulder arthroscopy, and tracheostomy. The pathophysiology varies with these different procedures, but clinical features are similar. Patients complain of chest pain, shoulder pain, and/or dyspnea. Physical findings can include tachypnea, hyperresonance to percussion, and decreased breath sounds on the affected side. Diagnosis is confirmed by chest x-ray with expiratory views.
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