Pregnancy Risk Categories

Pregnancy risks for all medications listed in the chapter are denoted after each drug dosage. The risk category is contained in brackets, e.g., [B]. Category A: Controlled studies have failed to demonstrate fetal risk during the first trimester.

Category B: Animal studies have not demonstrated a risk, but there are no controlled studies in women; or, animal studies have shown an adverse effect that was not confirmed in controlled studies in women in the first trimester, and there is no risk in later trimesters.

Category C: Animal studies have shown adverse effects and there are no studies in women; or, no animal or human studies are available. Use only if the potential benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.

Category D: There is positive evidence of human fetal risk. Use only in life threatening situations or for serious illnesses where no alternative medications are effective.

Category X: Contraindicated. Fetal risk outweighs potential benefit.

Blood Pressure Health

Blood Pressure Health

Your heart pumps blood throughout your body using a network of tubing called arteries and capillaries which return the blood back to your heart via your veins. Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as your heart beats.Learn more...

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