Pregnancy risks for all medications listed in the chapter are denoted after each drug dosage. The risk category is contained in brackets, e.g., [B]. Category A: Controlled studies have failed to demonstrate fetal risk during the first trimester.
Category B: Animal studies have not demonstrated a risk, but there are no controlled studies in women; or, animal studies have shown an adverse effect that was not confirmed in controlled studies in women in the first trimester, and there is no risk in later trimesters.
Category C: Animal studies have shown adverse effects and there are no studies in women; or, no animal or human studies are available. Use only if the potential benefit outweighs the risk to the fetus.
Category D: There is positive evidence of human fetal risk. Use only in life threatening situations or for serious illnesses where no alternative medications are effective.
Category X: Contraindicated. Fetal risk outweighs potential benefit.
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