Radionuclide Scanning

Radionuclide scanning has been virtually replaced by ultrasonography for emergency department patients with right upper quadrant pain. Technectium-99m-labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) is injected intravenously, is taken up by hepatocytes, is secreted into the bile canaliculi, and then flows into the small bowel. Normally there is a small amount of reflux into the cystic duct and gallbladder, but in cholecystitis the cystic duct is frequently occluded. The gallbladder, hepatic duct, and common duct should be visualized within 1 h of IDA administration, but total test time may be several hours.

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Essentials of Human Physiology

Essentials of Human Physiology

This ebook provides an introductory explanation of the workings of the human body, with an effort to draw connections between the body systems and explain their interdependencies. A framework for the book is homeostasis and how the body maintains balance within each system. This is intended as a first introduction to physiology for a college-level course.

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