Seizures are a common manifestation of CNS disease in patients infected with HIV, although the etiology of seizures in this population differs somewhat from immunocompetent patients (Table. ...2.24-9). Mass lesions, HIV encephalopathy, and meningitis are seen more frequently. —ll The most common mass lesion is caused by toxoplasmosis, followed by lymphoma. Cryptococcal, bacterial, or aseptic meningitis, or encephalitis due to herpes simplex, varicella zoster, or cytomegalovirus may cause seizures. HIV encephalopathy or AIDS dementia complex is an under-recognized etiology of seizures for HIV-infected patients. Other etiologies to consider are progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, CNS tuberculosis, and neurosyphilis.
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