A stroke results from any disease process that disrupts vascular blood flow to a distinct region of the brain. Injury in stroke occurs from (1) ischemia due to vessel occlusion, which deprives neurons of needed oxygen and substrate; or (2) hemorrhage due to vessel rupture, with resultant injury by direct cellular trauma, mass effect, elevated intracranial pressure, and/or the release of deleterious biochemical substances. From 80 to 85 percent of all strokes are ischemic, whereas 15 to 20 percent are hemorrhagic.
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