The wood distillates (e.g., turpentine and pine oil) are derived from pine, consist mainly of cyclic terpene derivatives, and comprise another class of hydrocarbons. Gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of wood distillates tends to be greater than that of aliphatic petroleum distillates, increasing the risk for central nervous system (CNS) depression.
Aromatic hydrocarbons (containing a benzene ring; Table. ..1Z4-2) and halogenated hydrocarbons (aliphatics with at least one substituted halogen group; Table. ...1Z4z3) are widely used industrial solvents. Freon is the trade name for a group of halogenated hydrocarbons that contain fluoride such as dichlorodifluoromethane and bromochlorodifluoromethane. Although many of these chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are thought to cause atmospheric ozone changes and are being replaced by more environmentally friendly compounds, Freon may still be found as a refrigerant gas and component of fire extinguishing systems. Inhalational exposure is the usual route of toxicity for aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons, although ingestion of these chemicals may also be problematic. Substance abusers and workers in certain occupational settings are most often affected. Such exposures may result in significant systemic toxicity.1 Along with their potent CNS effects, specific cardiovascular, hepatic, renal, and hematologic toxicity are attributed to aromatic and halogenated hydrocarbons. Finally, some hydrocarbons have toxicity related to an additive, such as lead in gasoline and pesticides. With these, the toxic additive usually dictates the clinical approach.
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