The adequacy of oxygenation and ventilation should be assessed immediately after initiation of ventilation by observing the degree of chest expansion and the change in the color of mucous membranes. Arterial blood is the most accurate source for blood gas analysis, but capillary or venous blood is acceptable for measurement of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco2) and pH in the absence of access to arterial blood. Adequacy of oxygenation can be assessed using pulse oximetric measurements. The target ranges for oxygenation and ventilation of neonates are somewhat different than those for older patients ( Ta.ble...,4.:3). The blending of oxygen and air to deliver the minimum Fi o2 required to achieve adequate oxygenation is highly desirable, particularly in premature infants, in whom hyperoxia may result in retinal damage.
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