Depending on whether the defect occurs before or after the conjugation phase in the hepatocyte, two types of hyperbilirubinemia can be produced: unconjugated and conjugated. If increased production of bilirubin exceeds the ability of the liver to process it or if there is a defect in bilirubin uptake or conjugation, then levels of the unconjugated form will rise, producing unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Causes include hemolysis from hemoglobinopathies, hemolytic anemias, or transfusion reactions, and in-born errors of bilirubin metabolism.
If the liver can produce but not normally excrete conjugated bilirubin because of a metabolic defect or intra- or extrahepatic obstruction, conjugated hyperbilirubinemia and cholestasis results. Intrahepatic cholestasis is caused by decreased excretion of conjugated bilirubin, hepatocellular damage, or damage to the biliary endothelium. Obstruction of biliary outflow by a congenital defect, inflammation, a mass lesion, or gallstones produces extrahepatic cholestasis.
Jaundice can also be classified as hemolytic (or prehepatic), hepatocellular (or hepatic), and obstructive (or posthepatic), depending on the location of the pathologic mechanism.1 More than one type can be present in a given patient.
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One of the main home remedies that you need to follow to prevent gallstones is a healthy lifestyle. You need to maintain a healthy body weight to prevent gallstones. The following are the best home remedies that will help you to treat and prevent gallstones.